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Am called a Master, even Doctor too, And now I've nearly ten years through Pulled my students by their noses to and fro And up and down, across, about, And see there's nothing we can know! That all but burns my heart right out. True, I am more clever than all the vain creatures, The Doctors and Masters, Writers and Preachers; No doubts plague me, nor scruples as well. I'm not afraid of devil or hell.

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To offset that, all joy is rent from me. I do not imagine I know aught that's right; I do not imagine I could teach what might Convert and improve humanity. Nor have I gold or things of worth, Or honours, splendours of the earth. No dog could live thus any more! So I have turned to magic lore, To see if through the spirit's power and speech Perchance full many a secret I may reach, So that no more with bitter sweat I need to talk of what I don't know yet, So that I may perceive whatever holds The world together in its inmost folds, See all its seeds, its working power, And cease word-threshing from this hour.

Oh, that, full moon, thou didst but glow Now for the last time on my woe, Whom I beside this desk so oft Have watched at midnight climb aloft. Then over books and paper here To me, sad friend, thou didst appear! Where even heaven's dear light strains But dimly through the painted panes! Hemmed in by all this heap of books, Their gnawing worms, amid their dust, While to the arches, in all the nooks, Are smoke-stained papers midst them thrust, Boxes and glasses round me crammed, And instruments in cases hurled, Ancestral stuff around me jammed- That is your world!

Compound infinitives can be constructed by the usage of modal verbs or auxiliary verbs. One places a new infinitive behind the main infinitive.

Then this outer infinitive will be conjugated instead of the old inner infinitive. Sometimes one must turn the old infinitive into a passive participle. There are two types of passive forms: static passive and dynamic passive. They differ by their auxiliary words. The static passive uses sein , the dynamic passive is formed with werden which has a slightly different conjugation from its siblings.

In both cases, the old infinitive is turned into its passive participle form. Note that a complex infinitive cannot be turned into passive form, with an accusative object, for obvious reasons. This restriction does not hold for dative objects. The only exceptions are verbs with two accusative objects.

German verbs

In older forms of German, one of these accusative objects was a dative object. The perfect infinitive is constructed by turning the old infinitive into the passive participle form and attaching the auxiliary verbs haben or sein after the verb. Note that the perfect infinitive of an intransitive verb is created the same way as the static passive infinitive of a transitive verb. One can also build perfect infinitives of passive infinitives, both static and dynamic. Since the passive is intransitive, having no accusative object, one must use the auxiliary sein :.

The use of haben and sein may depend on a sentence's meaning. I have driven the car Ich habe das Auto gefahren. The future infinitive is more theoretical, because this infinite is only used in finite form. One keeps the old infinitive and appends the verb werden , which in the present tense means 'to become'.

The future infinitive can also be built by a perfect infinitive, which is used in the future perfect. Modal verbs are verbs that modify other verbs, and as such, are never found alone. Examples may include the following: "may", "must", "should", "want", or "can". Such verbs are utilized by placing the modal infinitive behind the old passive or perfect infinitive, without changing any other word.

Similar to Latin, there is an accusative and infinitive ACI construction possible. To construct it, one places a certain infinitive behind the last infinitive, then adds an accusative object before the inner complex infinitive. This can be done in two ways:.


The infinitive with zu has nothing to do with the gerundive, although it is created in a similar way. One simply puts the word zu before the infinitive, perhaps before the permanent prefix, but after the separable prefix. The infinitive with zu extended with um expresses purpose in order to The subject of the main clause and the verb in the infinitive must be identical. There are three persons , two numbers and four moods indicative , conditional , imperative and subjunctive to consider in conjugation. There are six tenses in German: the present and past are conjugated, and there are four compound tenses.

There are two categories of verbs in German: weak and strong. Some grammars use the term mixed verbs to refer to weak verbs with irregularities.

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For a historical perspective on German verbs, see Germanic weak verb and Germanic strong verb. Below, the weak verb kaufen 'to buy' and the strong verb singen "to sing" are conjugated. Some strong verbs change their stem vowel in the second and third person singular of the indicative mood of the present tense. Compare the archaic English conjugation:. Modal verbs are inflected irregularly. In the present tense, they use the preterite endings of the strong verbs.

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In the past tense, they use the preterite endings of the weak verbs. In addition, most modal verbs have a change of vowel in the singular. Many verbs can have an indirect object in addition to a direct object for example geben "give" , but some verbs have only an indirect object. These verbs are called "dative verbs" because indirect objects are in the dative case. Most dative verbs do not change the object. There are however exceptions including even wehtun "hurt" , and there are verbs that are dative verbs in only some senses e.

Dative verbs include the following most common ones:. Some verbs require the use of a reflexive pronoun. These verbs are known as reflexive verbs. In English, these are often slightly modified versions of non-reflexive verbs, such as "to sit oneself down". There is an imperative for second person singular and second person plural, as well as for third person singular and third person plural, as well as for first person plural and second person formal. The endings for second person singular informal are: - e , -el or -le , and -er e.

This subtopic is strongly related to the construction of German sentences. This section details the construction of verbal nouns and verbal adjectives from the main infinitive. The processes are the same both for simple and complex infinitives. For complex infinitives, adverbial phrases and object phrases are ignored, they do not affect this process; except something else is mentioned.

Weak verbs form their past participles with ge- plus the third person singular form of the verb. Verbs with non-initial stress practically always the result of an unstressed inseparable prefix, or foreign words ending in stressed -ieren or -eien do not have ge- added to the verb. The past participles of modal and auxiliary verbs have the same form as their infinitives.

But if these verbs are used alone, without an infinitive, they have a regular participle. To create the basic form of a present participle, you attach the suffix -d to the infinitive of the verb. A gerundive-like construction is fairly complicated to use. The basic form is created by putting the word zu before the infinitive.

This is also the adverb. The adjective is more complicated. Compare the German declension of adjectives. Agent nouns e. If the person is a woman, the endings have an extra -in on them.

Note that in the explicitly feminine form a second syllable er is omitted, if the infinitive ends on ern or eren. On the other hand, this form is often used in fun or mocking expressions, because the imputed behaviour that is content of the mocking can be merged into a single word. Examples are: Toiletten-Tief-Taucher "toilet deep diver", which is an alliteration in German , or Mutterficker "motherfucker".

A whole range of these expressions aim at supposedly weak or conformist behaviour, such as Ampel-bei-Rot-Stehenbleiber "traffic-lights-on-red-stopper" , Warmduscher "warm-showerer" , Unterhosen-Wechsler "underpants changer" , or Schattenparker "in the shadow parker". Especially among children there are several fixed terms of this type, like Spielverderber "game spoiler".